Friday, August 28, 2020
Max Weber on Religion Max Weber, a German social researcher conceived in 1864, felt religion assumed a significant job in the public eye. Weber went to the University of Berlin where he considered financial aspects and law, alongside a few different subjects including reasoning, religion and workmanship. He had three apparatuses of sociological request that concentrated on clarifying human activities. We will compose a custom paper test on Max Weber or on the other hand any comparable point just for you Request Now WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s first rule of Verstehen is the German expression for Ã¢â¬Å"understanding. Ã¢â¬ This standard expresses that we can't clarify the activities of people since they are not driven by outside components however by inside qualities held by the person. The second is Ideal-Typus, which expresses that we structure an intentional misrepresentation of what ought to be. What's more, in conclusion, his guideline of Values expresses that when managing science, qualities ought not be blended in. Additionally realities and qualities are totally different things. In WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s first significant work on religion, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, he claimÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"that there is a nearby association between religion, the ascent of monetary private enterprise, and the introduction of current human progress in Western EuropeÃ¢â¬ (Pals 160). He saw that the Protestants were driving in business and he reasoned that they did everything following the will God in their lives. Hence, Weber accepted that religion influences ones conduct making it influence the economy. In, Sociology of Religion, Weber centers around three distinctive strict pioneers. The first is a performer. For Weber, religion is something that is fixed with uncommon encounters, or Ã¢â¬Å"ecstatic statesÃ¢â¬ , and entertainers are those that are put Ã¢â¬Å"beyond the domain of regular action and unveil themselves to another domain of realityÃ¢â¬ (Pals 166). Entertainers would be called to fix ailments or aid the development of harvests. Weber imagines that they are Ã¢â¬Å"permanently enriched with charismaÃ¢â¬ which is key in a strict pioneer. The second strict pioneer that Weber discusses is a minister. They are ordinarily responsible for strict customs held in a sanctuary. What's more, in conclusion, the third of the strict pioneers is the prophet. They are the bearers of magnetism. WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis on religion isn't one that I totally concur with yet it is one that I discovered fascinating. Step by step instructions to refer to Max Weber, Essay models Max Weber Free Essays string(133) perfect lying behind this is if the authority has any wellspring of pay separated from a pay he won't dependably follow the rules. POL264 Modern Political Theory MAX WEBER: ON BUREAUCRACY John Kilcullen Macquarie University Copyright (c) 1996, R. J. Kilcullen. We will compose a custom exposition test on Max Weber or then again any comparable point just for you Request Now See Marx on Capitalism Reading Guide 8: Max Weber Ã¢â¬ËGMÃ¢â¬â¢ alludes to H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (trans. also, ed. ), From Max Weber (New York, 1946) (H/33/. W36). Ã¢â¬ËSEOÃ¢â¬â¢ alludes to Max Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, tr. Henderson and Parsons (New York, 1947) ((HB/175/. W364). Ã¢â¬ËESÃ¢â¬â¢ alludes to Max Weber, Economy and Society, ed. G. Roth and C. Wittich (New York, 1968) (HM/57/. W342). BeethamÃ¢â¬â¢ alludes to David Beetham, Max Weber and the Theory of Modern Politics (London, 1974) (JA/76/. B37). In this talk I need to take a gander at what Weber says about organization, in G and M, p. 196 ff, and in SEO, p. 329 ff. Initially, something about the word. Ã¢â¬ËBureauÃ¢â¬â¢ (French, obtained into German) is a work area, or by augmentation an office (as in Ã¢â¬ËI will be at the workplace tomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢; Ã¢â¬ËI work at the Bureau of StatisticsÃ¢â¬â¢). Ã¢â¬ËBureaucracyÃ¢â¬â¢ is rule led from a work area or office , I. e. by the readiness and dispatch of composed reports Ã¢â¬ or, nowadays, their electronic proportional. In the workplace are tracked correspondences sent and got, the records or chronicles, counseled in planning new ones. This sort of rule is obviously not found in the old characterizations of sorts of government: government, gentry, vote based system Ã¢â¬ and organization? Indeed it doesn't have a place in such an order. It is a worker of government, a methods by which a government, nobility, majority rules system, or other type of government, rules. The individuals who designed the word needed to propose that the worker was attempting to turn into the ace. Weber is obviously mindful of this inclination; in truth he assaulted the claims of the Prussian organization to be a target and impartial worker of society, above governmental issues, and stressed that each administration has interests of its own, and associations with other social layers (particularly among the privileged societies); see Beetham, section 3. Be that as it may, officially and in principle the administration is just a methods, and this is to a great extent evident likewise practically speaking: somebody must give strategy bearing and back the administrator up (if essential) with power. At the highest point of a bureaucratic association, there is essentially a component which is in any event not absolutely bureaucraticÃ¢â¬â¢, SEO, p. 335, to provide strategy guidance. In the medieval times the best rulers managed from horseback: they went round the nation, furnished, joined by equipped men, and implemented their will. They were readied if important to authorize their will on their furnished partners by close to home battle, however their esteem was with the end goal this was only from time to time vital. The lord was joined additionally by Ã¢â¬ËclerksÃ¢â¬â¢, I. e. lergy, who could peruse and compose, who brought a chest containing records and composing materials; the advanced administration created from this. In present day nations the ruler doesn't need to battle face to face, or travel round a lot; the person in question rules by sending messages, through an agency. The messages are normally followed up on essentially as a result of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s moral power or glory (a Ã¢â¬ËstatusÃ¢â¬â¢ marvel), yet in addition since they can be upheld forcibly, by a Ã¢â¬ËstaffÃ¢â¬â¢ of police or officers. As Weber calls attention to (e. g. Website design enhancement, pp. 330-1), armed forces have been bureaucratized. Napoleon needed to watch his fight from horseback, yet the cutting edge general gets and sends messages. Napoleon had a Ã¢â¬ËstaffÃ¢â¬â¢, officials who dashed off with composed messages, the advanced armed force has a Ã¢â¬Ëgeneral staffÃ¢â¬â¢; the Prussian general staff was in WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s time respected proudly one of the key establishments of the German realm Ã¢â¬ it was in WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s terms an organization. As he additionally brings up, taxpayer supported organizations as well as ideological groups, holy places, instructive establishments, and private organizations, and numerous different foundations have ureaucracies. That is, they all have an expert staff for keeping records and sending interchanges which will be respected, at any rate by other staff of a similar organization, as legitimate bearings. Organizations are found in old Egypt, old Rome, in the medieval times (strikingly the administration that served the pope). Administration is an inescapable element of present day social orders, ever developing in significance, Weber accepted. Weber sets out a Ã¢â¬Ëideal typeÃ¢â¬â¢ (see last talk) for organization, described by an expound progressive division of work coordinated by express principles indifferently applied, staffed by full-time, life-time, experts, who don't in any sense own the Ã¢â¬Ëmeans of administrationÃ¢â¬â¢, or their occupations, or the wellsprings of their assets, and live off a compensation, not from pay got straightforwardly from the exhibition of their activity. These are for the most part includes found in the open help, in the workplaces of private firms, in colleges, etc. Let me remark on these focuses, beginning with the Ã¢â¬ËeconomicÃ¢â¬â¢ highlights. There have in history been governments whose individuals saw no difference in assets, salary, consumption, and so forth among open and private. Weber calls these Ã¢â¬ËpatrimonialÃ¢â¬â¢ (from the Roman law term for property that can be purchased or sold). In Europe in the medieval times, for instance, Ã¢â¬ËjurisdictionÃ¢â¬â¢ was frequently as much a bit of property as a structure or a pony. A realm may change hands as a major aspect of a marriage settlement. This was not valid for purview and property in the Church, which distinguished the prelateÃ¢â¬â¢s private property from that of his congregation, and didn't permit locale to be acquired or moved as property; it precluded Ã¢â¬ËsimonyÃ¢â¬â¢ (purchasing and selling office in the congregation), and implemented abstinence to keep church office and property from falling into the patrimony of families. Weber additionally discusses Ã¢â¬ËprebendsÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËbeneficesÃ¢â¬â¢ (terms utilized in the medieval Church), which means an office to which is connected some salary yielding property, e. g. ranch, or offerings, or duty gathering rights, from which the workplace holder livesÃ¢â¬but this property doesn't have a place with the recipient/prebendary and can't be sold or handed down. The cutting edge civil servant is significantly additionally expelled from property: the person doesn't have a prebend, yet is paid a pay. Officials are not permitted to charge expenses for themselv es (if expenses are charged they have a place with the administration, firm, and so on ), or to acknowledge endowments. The perfect lying behind this is if the authority has any wellspring of pay separated from a compensation he won't dependably adhere to the standards. You read Max Weber in classification Papers Solid observing of the official principles is probably the most noteworthy incentive in an administration. The cutting edge administrator doesn't claim his activity (SEO, p. 332). A few governments have offered workplaces, to fund-raise. This was valid, for instance, of legal situations in eighteenth century France, of commissions in the military and naval force in most European nations into the nineteenth century. The vested privileges of office holders were a snag to revamping, a hindrance to productivity; so they were purchased out, or dispossessed mind
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Truth in Politics - Essay Example For Machiavelli, 'virtu' or ability as employed by a ruler would make for an express that would flourish and shield itself from the ruses of adversary states. War for Plato is basically uncalled for and the main avocation for it is for safeguarding the state, while for Machiavelli a state exists to take up arms against different states - in this manner, war, is a characteristic condition in a state's presence. Plato and Machiavelli likewise lived in various times. For the previous, reasoning is worried about reality, as typified by standards and how things ought to be, and this worry would normally bring about an ideal society. For the last mentioned, reasoning is aligned with the real factors of intensity, in how things are as they may be. Scholars in Plato's Republic are the main ones perfect to control (and become lords) since they love and quest for reality - rather than the other two classes, the individuals who are fundamentally worried about respect, and the majority, who are worried about cash and the extravagance of physical cravings. The thinker lords have the nature of honesty who will never deliberately get into their psyches misrepresentation, which is their revulsion, and they will adore reality. Truth as brought about by Plato is outright, managing the endless and the constant, the structures contradicted to the whimsical, the only observed and experienced.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Which means of life Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Education is the most impressive weapon which you can use to change the world. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Nelson Mandela The significance of learning is to empower the person to put his possibilities to ideal use. Instruction makes man a correct scholar and a right leader. It accomplishes this by bringing him information from the outside world, instructing him to reason and familiarizing him with previous history, so he can be a superior appointed authority of the present. With training, he ends up in a stay with every one of its windows open to the outside world. A knowledgeable man is a progressively reliable specialist, a superior resident, a focal point of healthy impact, pride to his locale and respect to his nation. A country is incredible just in extent of its headway in training. Training is Self Empowerment. Getting decent training makes an individual sufficiently able to take care of himself in some random circumstance. It keeps him mindful of the given encompassing just as the principles and guidelines of the general public. Its just through information that one can address expert for its carelessness or errors and at exactly that point that can an individual benefit his privileges as a resident and look for development in the auxiliary working of administration and economy. Overall, individuals can achieve advancement just when they know where improvement is important for more prominent's benefit of humanity. Training gives a superior comprehension to the individual, it understands potential and characteristics one has as a person. It helps tap into idle ability, with the goal that individuals can hone their aptitudes. Instruction encourages what man lives and battles for. It develops a coordinated life. By so doing, it gives criticalness of life. It helps reestablishes monetary strength and nobility of life. It is the fundamental premise of a decent life. Instruction illuminates and lifts a country to statures of progress. The issue in India is that it has received popular government without setting up the ground for it by teaching populace. However, its never past the point where it is possible to embrace mass projects of Adult training or Social instruction. Grown-up instruction is the training of adult people. In the mind boggling present day times, individuals must be educated and know about what they are doing and what is being done to them. To make such awareness each mindful resident should take up this social reason and instruct the information denied individuals. Encouraging a day by day specialist for only an hour every day can transform themselves in hopeful manners as it was properly cited by Neil Armstrong, Ã¢â¬ËOne little advance is a goliath jump for mankindÃ¢â¬â¢. In ongoing history our nation has taken up great measures to guarantee a high instructed populace by taking up a few social causes and focusing on the provincial regions, since they include a larger part yet the framework has been laid back due the restrictions forced by old social morals. For as far back as hardly any hundreds of years in India, the young lady has been totally disregarded even as an individual, her sole reason forever has been to take care of the family and bear a kid. Great training has been denied to ladies. It is contended that ladies have their residential obligations to perform and that, on the off chance that they were instructed, they would cover themselves in their books and possess little energy for taking care of the administration of their family units. In any case, what individuals neglect to comprehend is training includes information on the methods by which wellbeing might be protected and empower a mother to counsel such present day books as will reveal to her how to raise up her youngsters into solid people and skilfully nurture them and her significant other, when illness assaults her family unit. The reason for training isn't simply acquiring a vocation yet instruction makes a person into a decent individual, which is given to the following the friends and relatives. The facts demonstrate that, the training of young ladies has of late taken a slight jump however this is just in a little fragment of Indian culture. Except if the movement is quick and constant, and incorporates a greater amount of poor urban and provincial young ladies in the field of instruction, there can be no desire for having a created and first world nation status for India. Ã¢â¬Å"When a man is instructed, just he is taught at the same time, when a lady is taught, a family is instructed. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ Indira Gandhi Ã¢â¬Å"Education is the incredible motor of self-improvement. It is through instruction that the little girl of a laborer can turn into a specialist, that the child of an excavator can turn into the leader of the mine, that an offspring of farworkers can turn into the leader of an incredible country. It is the thing that we make out of what we have, not what we are given, that isolates one individual from another. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ Nelson Mandela.
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
The Insider Secrets for Essay Topics on Gender Issues Revealed In the modern society, gender means a lot more than it used to. Gender-related issues have come to be an international concern and require to get curbed to promote equality which consequently yields peace and togetherness. Anyway, the matter of gender equality is dependent on the function of political authorities in locating the appropriate solutions. It is associated with human values and the socially constructed process of developing values in humans. Many people believe gender plays an extremely important part in the society. When there are inherent biological sex-based differences between women and men, gender inequality is a kind of social discrimination. Such inequality at work results to quite a low production because of women lacking the motivation to do the job. As a consequence, it has caused an increase in gender inequality. Quite a few health issues are connected with FGM based on the process. The problem of equality requires promoting moral principles with regard to women. Thus, it is going to direct to quite an enormous problem that's poverty in the family. In the majority of nations in the planet, the significant problem we face is gender inequality. Explain what the post is all about in a couple of paragraphs at most. Choosing us to offer assistance in writing your paper will make sure that the last article doesn't have any plagiarism and grammatical errors. Taking essay outline help isn't that much crucial as finding a very good essay for the topic that's primary. In case you have any concerns about the pricing, you may rest assured that you won't be charged expensively for the report. The paper ought to be a list of suggestions how to raise the range of females on the worldwide political arena. Writing an outline is particularly helpful once you are just about to write a thorough academic paper. Consult with your expository essay outline and adhere to the expository essay format in writing the remainder of your paper. Gender equality is everybody's issue, whether you're a guy or a woman. The way women are objectified for the interest of advertising ought to be discussed. Furthermore, it's also going to persuade a person to put others down due to their gender or believe they're not able to do a specific job just since they are either male or female. In developing and underdeveloped nations, the event of women discrimination is the big international matter. There are invariably a broad range of opinions on the field of technology, and here are our favourite things to consider on the subject. The world wide web has been an extremely helpful resource for inf ormation, and a fast source at that. A lot of the modern day problems that have hit conventional media and social media headlines incorporate a list of social justice problems that you're able to find at our essay writing services. Please remember that personal experience is quite vital in gender studies, it can provide you a few insights and direct you through the method of your research, but nevertheless, it can't be the universally relevant data. Moreover, you can take Sample Help in Gender Discrimination from our crew of essayists. For Writing a Good Essay you require in order to choose superior topics. For this reason, you may pick from a variety of topics when mandated with writing an essay on social troubles. It is wise to pick a topic that you could easily research on. Therefore, the topic ought to be debatable! Quite frequently, the very best topic is one which you truly care about, but you also will need to get well prepared to research it.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3187 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? This research project analyzes the impact of competence of individual investors on their trading behaviour in the stock market. Individual investors are seen trading too frequently. This impacts their returns from their investments, their belief in the stock markets, and also the functioning of financial markets to some extent. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Impact Of Competence On Trading In India" essay for you Create order Investors with high level of competence tend to trade more frequently. While some factors affect individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s perception towards external issues, some affect their belief in themselves, which in turn, influences their confidence and belief in their own judgement and decision making. This holds true in the context of investors in general and individual investors in particular. Individual investors take trading decisions based on their self-perceived competence that is influenced by several factors. The present study identifies the factors that determine individual investorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s competence. The study examines the trading behaviour of individual investors by using a modified questionnaire. RESEARCH AIM: The study aims to examine the factors that determine the competence level of individual investors. The study also explores whether the competence level of individual investors affects their trading behaviour. LITERATURE REVIEW: A number of psychological biases, that affect investors behaviour and subsequently their decisions, have been dealt with in several previous studies across the world. Such biases include: overconfidence, home bias, sensation seeking attitude, competence effect, herding, anchoring, heuristics, etc. This study attempts to address the issue of competence effect. Odean (1998) attributes the high volume of trading to investors overconfidence. Overconfidence can be termed as the tendency of investors to perceive themselves as skillful. In the process, they may forget the concept of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âa rising tide lifts all the boatsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬? at the time when their investment decisions prove to be sound. Glaser and Weber (2003) argued that there are three aspects of overconfidence, viz., miscalibration, the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"better-than-averageÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ effect (i.e., people tend to think that they have higher than average skills), and illusion-of-control (i.e., the tendency to believe that oneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s personal probability of success is higher than what objective probability would warrant). They establish that all but miscalibration lead to higher trading activities. Barber and Odean (2001) argued that the relationship between gender and trading activity is due to the greater overconfidence of men. The evidence from their study suggests that single, young male investors tend to trade most frequently. They also found that the turnover of males exceeded that of females, which they attributed to the greater overconfidence of males. Malmendier and Shantikumar (2003), in their study of small investors, found that, while large investors adjust their reaction to hold and buy recommendations downward, small investors take recommendations literally. Small investors also fail to account for the additional distortion due to underwriter affiliation. Potential reasons for their trading behaviour are: (1) higher costs of information; and (2) naivete about analysts distortions. Small investors may be naive about the distortions and trust analysts too much. Graham et al. (2004) found that home bias, coupled with the competence effect plays a major role in high trading frequency. They came up with the idea that investors who feel more competent tend to trade more frequently than those who feel less competent. The competent effect also contributes to home bias. When an investor feels more competent about investing in foreign assets, he is more willing to shift a portion of his assets overseas. Their study indicated that investors with higher competence are more likely to invest in international assets. The role of two psychological attributes in the trading tendency of investors has been studied by Grinblatt and Keloharju (2006). They analyzed the role played by sensation seeking and overconfidence in the tendency of investors to trade stocks. They found that overconfident investors and those investors more prone to sensation seeking, trade more frequently. Thus, for most investors, trading is driven by behavioural attributes. Cohn-Urbach and Westerholm (2006) attempted to determine whether the frequency of trading on the part of household and institutional investors had an effect on the returns they achieved. They found strong evidence that investors with high trading frequency earned substantially lower returns than those investors in the same demographic group who traded less frequently. It was shown that investors with larger portfolios tended to trade more frequently than those with smaller portfolios. Further, it was demonstrated that those investors with larger portfolios tended to trade actively for a longer period of time than those who held smaller portfolios. They also found that a similar relation exists for institutional investors. This indicates that institutional investors are prone to some biases which are also apparent in household investors. Trading is, however, not as hazardous for institutional investors as it is for household investors; institutional investors earn superior returns eve n if they trade more frequently than household investors Danial (1961). METHODOLOGY: The traditional finance theory assumes investors as rational beings and predicts that each and every activity of an investor is aimed at maximizing his/her expected utility. The literature available in economics also predicts that human activities are aimed at utility maximization. So far as stock trading frequency is concerned, it is obvious from the assumptions of traditional finance theory, as well as the concept of rational human being, that investors would trade only when they think the trade will result in an increase in expected utility, i.e., trade will add some expected utility to their portfolio. More frequent trading would lead to higher return from the investments. But, the actual scenario is quite different. Investors are usually influenced by psychological biases, such as overconfidence and the competence effect, and this frequent trading result in reduced returns because of more transaction costs, etc. Therefore, this study explores the following questions: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ How comfortable do investors feel in handling financial products, investment alternatives and subsequent investment decisions. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ What factors influence the trading behaviour of investors and do they trade frequently on the basis of their competence. Harris (2003) an attempt is made here to find whether the feeling of competence in individual investors influences their trading decisions. It implies that individual investors make their trading decisions based on the classical finance theory of risk-return fundamentals, rather than being influenced by behavioural biases. Based on the above research questions and the already stated purpose of the study, the following hypotheses are formulated: Overconfidence caused by a number of factors, affects the feeling of competence of investors and thereby their willingness to act on their judgments. Overconfidence in an individual investor may be concerned with his/her own perception of his/her ability and knowledge. If he/she feels more confident in any context, he/she is likely to act more frequently on his/her decisions. The next step would be to study the effects of overconfidence on investorsÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ willingness to act on his/her own judgments on investment-related issues. Individual investors, who perceive themselves as more competent, tend to trade more frequently. Finally, an attempt is now made to identify the competence effect in trading frequency. The high trading activity is usually attributed to the investorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s overconfidence. Overconfidence is distinct from the competence effect to a great extent. It is proposed here that high competence among investors motivates them to trade frequently. They are prompted to act on their judgments once they feel more skilful and knowledgeable. Therefore, how much individual investorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s trading frequency is influenced by the competence effect is now examined. In order to examine the behaviour of individual investors, this study used a modified questionnaire. To achieve the objective of the study, the investor competence and trading frequency needed to be measured. The questionnaire used in the study included questions related to competence and trading frequency. The respondents were asked to give their choices for each question in the questionnaire on a five-point Likert scale. Respondents were either asked survey questions in person or they were mailed the questionnaire with a request to send the same back after completion. To measure investor competence, a hypothetical model is proposed. This model assumes that an investorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s competence is a combined function of his/her sex, education, age, and income. The determinants of investor competence have been investigated using the empirical model proposed by Graham et al (2004). This study models competence as a combined function of investor characteristics such as gender, age, education, and income. The study also uses the estimated coefficients from regressing competence on the characteristics to construct predicted competence for each investor included in the survey. The term Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"competenceÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ used here includes skill as well as knowledge or understanding Heath and Tversky (1991). The feeling of competence in individual investors is determined by what they know, relative to what can be known. Thus, it can be enhanced by obtaining knowledge of stock market functioning, familiarity with investment-related issues and experience, and diminished, for example, by calling attention to relevant information that is not available to the individual investor as decision maker, especially when it is available to others. Competence can be defined as the subjective skill or knowledge level in a particular area, and as far as this study is concerned, competency means an investorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s perceived skill and knowledge in the area of finance and allied issues. It is widely seen that higher level of education and income make an individual feel more competent in almost all the areas including finance. It remains to be established whether any relationship exists between the feeling of competency of the investors and their trading frequency. TARGET POPULATION: The target population on which this research is conducted on are the individual investors who frequently visit the BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange) and NSE (National Stock Exchange). Investors selected for this study have their investments in shares and other investment vehicles available for trading on the Indian stock markets, both on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE). Investors whose investment in stock market is between Rs. 3,00000 and Rs. 10,000,00 were included in the study. This helps Individual Investors Trading Behaviour and the Competence Effect make the study more reliable because the sample selected for the study is taken from different strata/class of individual investors. The data collected, hence, has the advantages of covering a wide range of investor classes and account types. Proper care was taken to ensure that respondents, i.e., investors, understand all the questions asked during the survey, and answer them truthfully. As we do not have the detailed investments of the individuals, we do not know how their portfolios of investment actually perform. We are, however, not concerned with the portfolio performance in this study. RESEARCH APPROACH: Saunders (2003) opined about two types of research approach. Deductive approach and inductive approach: DEDUCTIVE APPROACH: A theory or hypothesis is being developed and a research strategy is designed to test the hypothesis. It begins with theoretical conceptualization and then moves on to testing through the application theory so as to create new experiences or observations . In this research a research question is being developed and the dissertation aims to answer the question by means of the general principle and established facts. According to Saunders (2003) a deductive approach owes more to positivism. As the researcherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s study deals with more positivism a deductive approach can be adopted in this research. A deductive study should have, A hypothesis that overconfidence caused by a number of factors, affects the feeling of competence of investors and thereby their willingness to act on their judgments. To decide the research population in which the researcher could find the customerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s perception on the competence of investors. To administer the questionnaire to a sample of regular investors. To be particularly careful about defining service quality and customer satisfaction To standardise the response of the sample selected. RESEARCH STRATEGY: The research strategy undertaken depends on how the problem looks, what questions the problem leads to and what end result is desirable (Merriam, 1994). The research strategy is a common plan for how the researcher is getting the answers for the research questions. Here the topic gives the researcher a chance to employ both qualitative and quantitative methods for research. Krueger (1998) opined Combining both qualitative and quantitative methods gives a greater methodological mix that would strengthen the research. This approach will allow the author to facilitate ability and dependability in what is found. QUANTITATIVE DATA: Quantitative data could be measurable and identified on a numerical scale. Moreover these quantitative data will be used to pass on information to management team in the simple ways like graphs and charts following analysis using the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). These data can be used for the assessment and tracking of the performance of the organisation in the service sector and their competitive positioning in the market. Standardised questionnaires will give to the customers after they were carefully planned, piloted and collected in order to give the researcher important statistical and factual data straight from the customers. QUESTIONNAIRE: Chisnall (1997) explained a questionnaire is a method of attaining specific information about a defined problem so that the data, after analysis and interpretation, result in a better appreciation of the problem. It is an important element of the total research design, and a considerable professional expertise is essential for its preparation and administration. Smith (1986) suggest that, in some respects Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"questionnairesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢ are a whole methodology on their own: that is a class of methods rather than any single method. And therefore it is not surprising to find them covering a wide range on the dimension between full evaluator control and full informant control. LIMITATIONS: Smith (1986) claim that there are of course, many limitations to questionnaires: they are more helpful for gathering superficial data than in depth data. It is not easy by questionnaires to adapt changing circumstances and needs; and the response rate to questionnaires can be extremely low, particularly when they are mailed through the post Smith (1986). TIME HORIZONS: A mix of both cross sectional and exploratory study will be doing by the researcher. Cross sectional study helps to make comparative study with analysis of the data in relation with theoretical concepts, which helps for further research. Exploratory study has been chosen in order to explore the operation of the sector in detail and understand the operation of the sector which would help to proceed further with collections of dataÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s qualitatively (Saunders et al 2003). DATA COLLECTION METHODS: SAMPLING: The study employed the random sampling technique for conducting the survey, since in this technique, every member of the pool of individual investors has an equal chance of being selected in the sample. Random sampling is the best technique for providing an unbiased representative sample of investors. The mass of the individual investors interviewed/contacted were selected randomly from across the BSE or NSE zone. The criterion used for selecting those individuals in the survey for the purpose of data collection is that they hold investment in shares and other exchange-traded market instruments of Rs. 300,000 or more. Researcher prefers to go for a Non probability Convenience sampling where the sampling will be randomly until it satisfies the requirements of the research (Saunders et al, 2003). SECONDARY DATA: The researcher has access to a wide range of facilities of the Learning Resource centres of the universities in Liverpool and also to the Central Library of the Liverpool city. So the researcher will be able to use various forms of secondary dataÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s, journals, books, websites which will enhance the critical review of the literature and a cross sectional and exploratory study in detail. LIMITATIONS: Secondary data may not be up to date, as they have been shaped in an earlier period. Saunders et al (2003) identifies the limitations of secondary data as It may be collected for a purpose that does not match the researcher need. Sometimes it may be collected for a purpose that does not match the researcher need. Sometimes the access for the data may be costly. PRIMARY DATA: The major source of primary data is through questionnaire survey. A structured questionnaire will be given to target people. Questionnaires will form the main basis of the research, this is due to the fact that this research study will require Opinions, attitudes, views, beliefs, preferences to be recorded and these can be investigated using questionnaires PERSONAL SUITABILITY: Currently I am persuing my Masters in Business Administration at Liverpool John Moores University with one my optional module as Corporate Finance Envronment which helped me a lot to understand the basics of Trading and Inestment Banking. I have successfully finished all modules in my 1st semester. Presently I am waiting for the result of my second semester. My extra-curricular activities have improved my organisational and time management potential. Throughout my education and my career I had to do a lot of research and this has improved my analytical capabilities, which would help in deriving a valid conclusion. RESEARCH ETHICS: Research ethics involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving scientific research. These include the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation, animal experimentation, various aspects of academic scandal, including scientific misconduct etc Shaw et al (2009). There are many ethical issues to be taken into serious consideration for research. Sociologists need to be aware of having the responsibility to secure the actual permission and interests of all those involved in the study Hubert (2007). They should not misuse any of the information discovered, and there should be a certain moral responsibility maintained towards the participants. There is a duty to protect the rights of people in the study as well as their privacy and sensitivity. The confidentiality of those involved in the observation must be carried out, keeping their anonymity and privacy secure. As pointed out in the BSA for Sociology, all of these ethics must be honoured unless there are other overriding reasons to do so for example, any illegal or terrorist activity. PROTOCOLS: DATA INTEGRITY: According to Davies (2004) Data integrity is data that has a complete or whole structure. All characteristics of the data including business rules, rules for how pieces of data relate, dates, definitions and lineage must be correct for data to be complete. Per the discipline of data architecture, when functions are performed on the data the functions must ensure integrity. Examples of functions are transforming the data, storing the history, storing the definitions (Metadata) and storing the lineage of the data as it moves from one place to another. The most important aspect of data integrity per the data architecture discipline is to expose the data, the functions and the datas characteristics. Data that has integrity is identically maintained during any operation. Put simply in business terms, data integrity is the assurance that data is consistent, certified and can be reconciled. INTERVIEWER QUESTIONNAIRE CHECKLIST: The checklist will be designed making sure the questionnaires are fully and accurately completed. The following will be assured: The researcher will always ensure that the interviewer has investments in BSE or NSE and has the time available to complete the questionnaire. The respondent will be free to work through the questionnaire The researcher will make sure all responses are unambiguous. A brief idea of the research will be included in the questionnaire. On receipt of completed questionnaires they will be loaded to SPSS.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Exxon Valdez Oil Spill ABSTRACT In March of 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. An eighteen foot wide hole was ripped into the hull, and 10.9 million gallons of crude oil spilled into the ocean. In the following weeks, many things transpired. This paper will discuss the cleanup, the damage, and the results of the biggest oil spill in United States history. On March 24, 1989, in Prince William Sound Alaska, the Exxon Valdez was moving South West after leaving Port Valdez. The ship was carrying over fifty million gallons of crude oil. When the Valdez was only twenty-eight miles from the port, it ran aground on Bligh reef. The bottom was ripped open, and 10.9 millionÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There were also problems with high winds, which were often in excess in of forty knots. Perhaps the most interesting problem that cleanup workers had to deal with was with the wildlife. There was actually one reported case of an Alaskan brown bear attacking a worker that was on the beach. All of these factors combined to make the cleanup more difficult then anticipated. The cleanup process was probably the most expensive oil spill cleanup in history. However, the total cost is unknown and still growing. Exxon paid more than five billion dollars, including twenty million to study the spill. Part of the reason that the cleanup effort was so expensive was the amount of workers that were used in the effort. Exxon had approximately eleven thousand men and women on its payroll, including temporary workers. The average worker received $16.69 per hour. Although there was no set number of hours that the workers competed per week, one thousand eight hundred dollars was a normal paycheck for one week. Exxon was also in need of many small boats to help with the deployment of containment buoys, and to be used as floating observation stations. Local fisherman charged up to eight thousand a day for the usage of their boats. This combined with their hourly wages made cleaning up after the oil spill more profitable then fishing on a daily basis for many people. TheyShow MoreRelatedThe Exxon Valdez Oil Spill1718 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Exxon Valdez A corporation has a moral duty to ensure that their products and operations do not cause harm to society and the environment. There are significant factors that must be taken into consideration to ensure the proper response is put forth if disaster rears its ugly head. Many times, when disaster strikes, companies do not always make the appropriate response, or they do not remediate the problem efficiently enough to maximize their efforts. The Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 is aRead MoreThe Exxon Valdez Oil Spill1090 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThis presentation features the Exxon Valdez oil spill, which significantly affected the environment in and around Valdez, Alaska. In this connection, Group D will explore: the background information of Prince William Sound, the oil business in Valdez and the event of the oil spill. Next, the team defines the problems Ã¢â¬â that is, the effects of the spill Ã¢â¬â what damage did it cause. After, we will diagnose the issues Ã¢â¬â meaning that the group intends to pinpoint the root causes of the problems. The nextRead MoreThe Exxon Valdez Oil Spill1663 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Exxon Valdez oil spill was the largest oil spill in U.S history. It was a catastrophic disaster that the U.S swore to learn from. Twenty two years later as the prevention procedures became complacent, the Deepwater Horizon explosion made us re-examine our procedures as a nation. The Deepwater Horizon explosion is now the second worst oil spill in the world following the Gulf War Oil Spill in Kuwait in 1991. The U.S used similar techniques to clean the water as the Exxon Valdez clean up, howeverRead MoreThe Exxon Valdez Oil Spill1150 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Exxon-Valdez oil spill occurred on March 24, 1989, when the tanker Exxon Valdez, transporting oil from Valdez, Alaska to Los Angeles, California, ran aground on the Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The root cause of the accident was the captain. After passing through Valdez Narrows , pilot Murphy left the vessel and Captain Hazelwood took over the wheelhouse. It was Captain Hazelwood who made the decision to steer the ship off its normal path in order to avoid a run in with ice. ForRead MoreThe Exxon Valdez Oil Spill1581 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThrough the instances of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, the Kuwait Oil Fires, the Hurricane Katrina devastation and the Sydney Tar Ponds, this paper will develop an argument supporting the idea that governments should be given the responsibility to handle environmental hazards that result from the prior use of resources as well as environmental regulations that are no longer up to standard. Arguments/Examples I. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill To begin, the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill was a man-made environmentalRead MoreThe Exxon Valdez Oil Spill1999 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPart 1 Ã¢â¬â Briefly describe the Exxon Valdez oil spill: On March 24th 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground in Prince William Sound Alaska, spilling roughly 10.8 gallons of crude oil polluting over a thousand miles of AlaskaÃ¢â¬â¢s coast (Gerken, 2014). At its time, it was the worst oil spill in history, lasting for several days. It was caused by the negligence of the captain who was reportedly intoxicated at the time. The oil was very quickly dispersed over a wide area of land because of extremeRead More Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Essay1835 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Exxon Valdez Oil Spill ABSTRACT nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;In March of 1989, the Exxon Valdez oil tanker ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. An eighteen foot wide hole was ripped into the hull, and 10.9 million gallons of crude oil spilled into the ocean. In the following weeks, many things transpired. This paper will discuss the cleanup, the damage, and the results of the biggest oil spill in United States history. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;On March 24, 1989, inRead MoreThe Exxon Valdez And Bp Oil Spill1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPitchon 12/11/12 References Gill, Duane A., J. Steven Picou, and Liesel A. Ritchie. The Exxon Valdez and BP oil spills: a Comparison of Initial Social and Psychological Impacts. American Behavioral Scientist (2011): 3-23. This article was concerned in identifying psychological impact of disasters. The article analyzed the psychological effects of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill and the 2010 BP oil spill. The article discussed how years after these disasters the environment and the people feltRead MoreAnalysis of Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Essay1737 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMahalia Gauld January 18, 2011 MGMT 2850 Case Study #1- Exxon Valdez Situation in Brief: On March 24, 1989, an Exxon supertanker spilled 11 million gallons of oil while traveling through the pristine waters of AlaskaÃ¢â¬â¢s Prince William Sound. The consequences of this spill were detrimental and continue to affect life today. The oil spill killed thousands of wildlife, extensively damaged a portion of the beautiful Alaskan environment, and eventually affected the economy to global proportionsRead More Business Ethics and the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Essay3442 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesunderstand the difference between right and wrong. Since businesses touch such a large segment of our society, codes of ethics must be established and followed to protect the general public. In the following pages we will discuss the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill disaster and examine how it relates to (1) the state of business ethics since 2000, (2) examples of the classic schools of ethics - golden rule, golden mean, utilitarianism, and categorical imperative, (3) three challenges journa list face
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The ending of a novel can be evaluated by the reader in several different ways, however to properly analyze the work is to further explore the logic of how everything has come to be. The ability of the author to show the reader that the ending is reasonable from the preceding action and the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s nature is what should truly be examined. Not only is the ending of The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz both happy and unhappy, it is logical in the sense that it follows logically from the climax of the novel all while the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s have been constant throughout, except Oscar. Oscar, the protagonist experiences a life-changing transformation that leads to his untimely death. However, the ending is convincing because of this transformation and it is convincing that the novel would end the way it would. Diaz wrote this novel in a way that kept the reader captivated and interested because his logic can not be questioned. We will write a custom essay sample on Oscar Wao or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As the novel is coming to a close, the reader finds that OscarÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and appearance changes rapidly, he experienced some great burst of energy to adjust his reclusive lifestyle. The sudden alteration in his life is never revealed to the reader, but seems to be more of a Ã¢â¬Å"deux ex machinaÃ¢â¬ tactic to go with the ending. Because of the frequent switching of stories and histories, when the reader is reintroduced to Oscar at the end, chapters of his life are left out and he had suddenly transformed. Having been shunned by society during his high school and college years due to his odd looks and awkward social habits seemed to be too cruel for Oscar. There had had to be something bigger in store for him. Oscar even began to branch out from his hermit way of life after the change; he even visited his family in the Dominican Republic where he was driven too far by love for a woman he met. His determination and passion eventually led him to his death but it seemed just right. Oscar had shown throughout the ending an unbreakable determination to court this woman and win over her love. His new appearance and outgoing personality drove him to pursue her and never give up. Trouble began to brew because of the woman, and it seemed logical to any normal person to discontinue the pursuit; but OscarÃ¢â¬â¢s stubbornness that was frequently depicted in situations throughout the novel led him to his death. In this novel there was no other way for Oscar to die logically; he needed a big bang to bow out of his eccentric life and what better way for him, than to die for love. True love, what Oscar had been searching for his entire life and finally found, had killed him. The conclusion of The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz is satisfying because the ending revolved around OscarÃ¢â¬â¢s death, the separate stories of the novel now intertwined because of him. His transformation and new personality was ultimately the cause of his death, but in a sense it can be considered happy because it seems just right. Oscar becomes a new person and breaks free of his nerdy and rejected persona. Diaz seamlessly weaves the ending of Oscar WaoÃ¢â¬â¢s story and all the characters around him due to their natures and the preceding actions. The ending of this novel is convincing and logical because of OscarÃ¢â¬â¢s new transformation which led him to do things which he would have not done before. These things that he did, most specifically pursuing a woman he should not have, led him to his death. Despite the morbid ending, it is not unreasonable; it is certainly logical and therefore satisfying to the reader.